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In many life-science fields, electron microscopy has contributed in a large number of ways, including the discovery of viruses, prevention of infection, clarification of the structure of organelles, drug development, and food safety. It is utilized in a wide variety of fields, such as molecular and cellular biology, microbiology, botany, clinical pathology, pharmacology, and toxicology. It is also used to investigate cell structures and their functions, the ultrastructure of biomolecules and proteins, and three-dimensional structures. Hitachi High-Technologies provides highly advanced tools for life-science applications, such as TEM systems that can be used with ultra-thin sections to investigate the internal structure of cells, and SEM and FIB-SEM systems for three-dimensional structural observations.