Lateral Modulation FFM (LM‐FFM)
Friction image that does not rely on surface unevenness or scan direction by adding micro oscillations in the horizontal direction (direction of cantilever deflection) to the sample is observed and the torsion oscillation of the cantilever is detected.
Animation of FFM Observation: Silicon oil film on polystyrene
Friction of oil film is less, resulting in dark contrast in FFM and LM-FFM images.
Scan area: 2.5 µm
LM‐FFM receives less topographic influence than FFM.