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  3. Electron Microscopes/Atomic Force Microscopes
  4. Scanning Probe Microscopes/Atomic Force Microscopes (SPM/AFM)
  5. Principle of SPM, AFM
  6. Piezo‐Response Microscope (PRM)

Piezo‐Response Microscope (PRM)

Applies an AC current between the probe and sample, and by scanning, observes strain distribution of the sample while detecting the ferroelectric strain component.

Ferroelectric thin film

Schematic animation of PRM measurement

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